A ce sujet, tu as le projet Open Data Impact qui a fait un gros travail à l’international : http://odimpact.org/.
Ils ont aussi publié un ebook chez O’Reilly : http://www.oreilly.com/data/free/the-global-impact-of-open-data.csp.
Il y aussi dans la même veine le projet Open Data Impact Map : http://opendataimpactmap.org/map.html
Enfin, pour avoir été évaluateur une année de l’Open Data Barometer, je vous conseille d’aller regarder les données qualitatives qui sont une véritable pétpite : http://opendatabarometer.org/4thedition/data/.
C’est pas évident du tout à utiliser (je vous ferai un post à ce sujet prochainement), il faut jongler entre le fichier des questions et celui des réponses mais c’est super intéressant pour avoir un premier aperçu de la situation de l’open data dans chaque pays.
Au sujet de l’impact de l’open data sur l’efficacité du gouvernement, les résultats de la France en 2016 :
"A clear evidence of increased government efficiency thanks to open data is the creation of the Open National Address Database (Base d’Adresses Nationale - BAN). This project is considered to be a best practice since it constitutes a successful private-public partnership (between OpenStreetMap, Etalab and the National Geographic Institute) and contributes to improve a culture and practices of interaction with civil society organisations but also between public entities (1)
Another notable evidence is the analysis of electricity consumption data from public buildings to improve the selection of energy providers throuhg public procurements. (2) This study was done by the Data Scientist team under the Chief Data Officer of the Government in partnership with the Service of States Procurements (Service des Achats de l’État). Data analysed are available as open data (3)
In early 2016, the Chief Data Officer has launched a platform of data scientist firms and experts to support public administrations in the design or implementations of their services and policies (4) This activity is part of the data-driven strategy of the Government which is closely linked to the Open Data Initiative.
Despite this evidence, there is no peer-reviewed study or audit evidence of positive impact on the government efficiency as a whole.
(1): http://blog.okfn.org/2014/11/17/an-unprecedented-public-commons-partnership-for-the-french-national-address-database/ Accessed on September 15, 2016
(2): https://agd.data.gouv.fr/2015/05/17/analyser-les-consommations-energetiques-des-batiments-publics/ Accessed on September 15, 2016
(3): http://www.data.gouv.fr/fr/datasets/donnees-de-consommation-delectricite-des-ministeres/ Accessed on September 15, 2016
(4): France’s Chief Data Officer report on data governance, 13 July 2016, https://agd.data.gouv.fr/2016/07/13/frances-chief-data-officer-report-on-data-governance/ Accessed on September 15, 2016"
Au sujet de la transparence et de la redevabilité, les résultats de la France en 2016 :
"Since the deployment of the French open data initiative, open data has been widely used and cited as a tool having made contributions to increase transparency and accountability.
One of the flagship case is the Réserve Parlementaire - funds arbitrarily allocated by MPs to non-for-profit entities - which has been released as open data for the first time in June 2015,(1) following a long FOI battle.(2) Another case is the release of benefits received by GPs from pharmaceutical companies and its reuse and diffusion by the organization Regards Citoyens. (3)
Several national media such as LeMonde.fr regularly reuse open data for their articles on public and social affairs. However, there is no evidence of deep journalist investigation at national level where open data played a key role.
Furthermore, there is no evidence of peer-reviewed study showing a positive impact on transparency and accountability.
(1): https://www.data.gouv.fr/fr/datasets/reserve-parlementaire/ Accessed on September 15, 2016
(2): http://www.sudouest.fr/2015/07/22/le-citoyen-s-est-reveille-2071967-3725.php Accessed on September 15, 2016
(3): http://www.regardscitoyens.org/sunshine/ Accessed on September 15, 2016"
Au sujet de la transition énergétique et du développement durable, les résultats de la France en 2016 :
Open Solar Map is a geo-based application to assess the potential in terms of rooftop photovoltaic power station in France and foster the installation of such systems.(1) The application is based on OpenStreetMap and uses crowdsourcing and artifical intelligence algorithms to collect the data.
In the context of the COP21 in Paris in December 2015, the Government organized the C3 Challenge to support the creation of innovative data-based projects to tackle climate change. (2)
The Ministry for Environment, Energy and the Sea has launched in February 2016 the GreenTech initiative, an incubation program to support the development of innovation for sustainable development and foster the use of open data in the sector. (3)
There is, however, no study with measurable evidence that one or more of the projects cited above led to any emission reduction or improved environmental sustainability yet.
(1): Sabine Blanc, La Gazette des Communes, Open Solar Map, le Soleil en Partage, 12 January 2016, http://www.lagazettedescommunes.com/425060/open-solar-map-le-soleil-en-partage/ Accessed on September 15, 2016
(2): http://c3challenge.com/ Accessed on September 15, 2016
(3): http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/Green-Tech-le-numerique-au-service.html Accessed on September 15, 2016"
Au sujet de l’inclusion des personnes en marge, les résultats de la France en 2016 :
" The portal https://mes-aides.gouv.fr/ is designed to increase the inclusion of marginalized groups in accessing government services. It is a social benefits simulator. After answering a short questionnaire, the applicability to a series of social benefits is delivered together with direct access to the application process. This case shows how a procedures aggregation and simplification based on open data can have social impact by helping vulnerable population to access social benefits.
Openfisca Platform (http://www.openfisca.fr/) is an open source simulator of France’s welfare system. It allows to easily calculate a great number of social benefits and taxes paid by households and to simulate the impact of reforms on their budgets. It is designed as a pedagogic tool to help citizen to better understand the socio-fiscal system. OpenFisca could be used by the Government to increase the access of marginalised groups to social benefits.
The application handimap.org enables people with a disability to navigate nore easily through some cities in France (1)
The French Red Cross released as open data the geolocalization of its center (2) The data is now used by several applications and websites for homeless people, such as the organisation www.benevoleathome.org
DataForGood.org is a French NGO composed of data scientists dedicated to tackle social issues. The NGO regularly collaborates with the French Red Cross to improve the efficiency of its response, for instance by identifying priority zones thanks to open data analysis.
However these projects or services are lacking impact study. Additionaly, there is little evidence of the impact of open data to improve inclusion of youth, ederly people, foreigners or women in policy making or in accessing government services.
(1): http://www.handimap.org/ Accessed on September 14, 2016
(2): http://www.data.gouv.fr/fr/organizations/croix-rouge-francaise/#datasets Accessed on September 15, 2016"
Au sujet de l’impact sur l’économie, les résultats de la France en 2016 :
"In the context of the law on the Digital Republic, to be enacted end of this year, the Government conducted an impact study where it describes economic potentials for open data. It identifies four area where open data can have a positive effect on the economy: the reduction of data transactions cost, fostering innovation, fostering new collaborations, and the fight against corruption. (1) The report, however, does not back these assertions with national examples, only with evidence from UK, Denmark and Europe.
France and UK Governments have been partnering through a UK-French Data Task Force on identifying opportunities for growth with data. Their work resulted in a set of recommendations for implementing joint activities to foster data-based economy. The report provides some evidence of positive impact of open data on the economy but very few if any from France. (2)
There are evidence that at least two businesses are developing their activity primarily thanks to open data in France. These companies are Open Data Soft and C-Radar (formerly Data Publica).
(1): 4.1 Impacts économiques et sociaux, Articles 3, 4 et 5, Elargissement du champ de diffusion par l’administration, http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/projets/pl3318-ei.asp Accessed on September 15, 2016
(2): https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/537234/Rapport_VEN_clean-ek_mod_NS.pdf Accessed on September 15, 2016
(3): opendatasoft.com Accessed on September 15, 2016
(4): http://www.c-radar.com/ Accessed on September 15, 2016"
A la question “est-ce que les entrepreneurs ont trouvé de nouvelles opportunités pour créer des entreprises avec des données en open data ?”, les résultats pour 2016 en France
(note personnelle : il y a quelques boites dedans qui, comme nous, vivent de l’ouverture des données et pas de sa réutilisation, ça fait un peu comme l’expression sur les vendeurs de pioches qui se sont le plus enrichis pendant la ruée vers l’or😉) :
"There are evidence of new companies where open data is cited to be at the core of - or at least playing a part - in their business model. These includes OpenDataSoft (solution for data catalog)(1), Snips (artificial intelligence)(2), Home’n’go (housing)(3), C-Radar (data analytics)(4), KelQuartier (housing)(5), PlumeLab (air quality)(6), CommoPrices (commodities)(7) and Five by Five (innovation agency)(8) Each of these companies employs around 5 to 30 people and some, such as Snips or Open Data Soft, are starting to attract international attention and significant investment.
The Dataconnexions challenge has helped the Government to identify open data initiatives with business potential. (9) More than 300 startups and projects have been identified through the 6 first editions of the contest.
Lastly, the Government, through its open data catalog data.gouv.fr has also identified 1477 cases of data reuses, however most of them are for non-commercial purposes.